Timeline of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956

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Gordon, D. L. (n.d.). Hungarian Revolution. Retrieved March, 2016, from http://www.coldwar.org/articles/50s/HungarianRevolution.asp

The Hungarian Revolution, 1956. (n.d.). Retrieved March, 2016, from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/hungarianrevolution.htm

Trueman, C. N. (2015, May 25). The Hungarian Uprising of 1956. Retrieved March, 2016, from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/modern-world-history-1918-to-1980/the-cold-war/the-hungarian-uprising-of-1956/


Contemporary Coverage of Hungarian Refugee Crisis: Looking Back


Hungarian Refugees of 1956 Revolution Find Success in U.S.” New York Times (1923-Current file); Oct 20, 1968; Ethnic Newswatch: The New York Times p. 18

As soon as 12 years after the start of the refugee crisis, the New York Times was already “looking back” at the Hungarian Revolution and the refugees accepted into the U.S., and using our experience with that to inform future action. This article boasts of the success of the United State’s acceptance of refugees, and holds it as a guide for how to act in response to the new refugees from Czechoslovakia. The article emphasizes how well the Hungarian refugees have fit in to American life, who have become an “increasingly far-flung and well-assimilated Hungarian community, nearly all now American citizens.” They describe the refugees as they arrived as “predominantly young, healthy, and well-educated” and “determined and ambitious.” The article highlights the prosperity and success that many refugees have found in the U.S., with many able to fly home to see their families, and suggests that the transition to American life is easy for most. By showing how well past refugees have assimilated and created new lives in the United States, the article tries to persuade America to accept more refugees.


The 50th Anniversary of the Hungarian Uprising.” Refugees Magazine144, no. 3 (October 1, 2006): 1-23.

This article tells the stories of seven refugees who escaped Hungary during the 1956 revolution and briefly chronicles each their experiences over the past fifty years. Each of the profiles focuses on individuals who fled to different countries: the United States, New Zealand, Colombia, Switzerland, Canada, Austria, and Japan. Each story presented its own struggles, triumphs, and varying levels of support in their countries of relocation, but the stories are told primarily through direct quotes of the refugees who were interviewed. The representation of the people profiled is not uniform and presents a variety of experiences.


Fifty Years Later, Bard College Remembers and Celebrates Student Refugees of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution” Italian Voice, Oct 5, 2006; ProQuest: Italian Voice p. A6

This article is about an event at Bard College that commemorates and celebrates the 50th anniversary of the college’s acceptance of around 300 student refugees from Hungary. The event is followed by an international conference aimed at “reconsidering the Hungarian revolution, its impact on the freedom fighters’ future lives, and its legacy.” The article emphasizes many of the Hungarian student’s roles as freedom fighters, and describes the group of students in a positive and optimistic light, saying they were a “magnificent group…eager to lean” and that their presence on campus “forced us to pick up the pace.” The article remembers the college’s efforts with pride, as something that has benefited hundreds of students.


Conference Reunites Hungarian Refugees who were Aided by School” Winn, Amy. Poughkeepsie Journal, Feb 13, 2007; ProQuest: The Poughkeepsie Journal, p. E1.

This article also writes about Bard’s 50th anniversary celebration, but focuses on some of the students who went through the program, and their memories of their experience and impressions of the program. One former student interviewed praises the United States’ response to the crisis, remembering that the U.S. government “‘did everything to take in refugees,’” amidst “‘an outpouring of international assistance.’” Another is excited about the 50th anniversary event, as it will provide a space for others to learn about Hungarian history who are not familiar with it, and for those who went through the program to share their experiences with each other. The article highlights how the students learned the american way of life along with English as they were studying at Bard, and makes a point to describe the educational success of the two program participants they interviewed, one that is currently in graduate school for American Studies and English, and the other that earned his graduate degree at Columbia University, works as a professor, and invented a breakthrough drug for glaucoma.


In Vienna, Bearing Witness” Elliott, Roberta. Jewish News, 5 November 2015; ProQuest: Jewish News, p. 4,8.

The author of this article critiques Vienna’s response to the current refugee crisis through looking at his own family history as refugees from Vienna. His father escaped Vienna when Germany annexed Austria in 1938, lived in a refugee camp in France for two years, and then traveled to and finally settled in the U.S. The author is writing shortly after right-wing powers in Hungary succeeded in closing their borders with Croatia, meaning that refugees had to find alternative routes, and “waves of humanity started pouring into Vienna.” He describes the “war-torn refugees” he saw while volunteering at the border as “spectral” and “wearily marching,” and writes of the “starving, weary, beaten-down young men, who have had their youth stolen from them.” The author takes a humanizing approach, recounting some of the difficult immigration stories he heard while speaking with the refugees, and refutes the fear of terrorists posing as refugees by saying one must only “look into the eyes of those who have lost everything” to see that one would not willingly choose to live like that. The author seems to urge the Viennese to remember their own people who had to flee as refugees, and be more open to accepting refugees who need help now.




New York Times Coverage of the Hungarian Refugee Crisis

Red Cross Issues Plea as Hungarian Relief Lags” New York Times (1923-Current file); Dec 6, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 3.

Published less than two months after the revolution in Hungary began, this article reveals the amount of attention that the refugee crisis has already received in the U.S. The American Red Cross set a goal to raise five million dollars to support the refugees, but was very behind on this goal when the article was written. This effort by the Red Cross suggests that they were unhappy with the lack of attention that the U.S. government had given the crisis thus far.


Six Hungarians Quit Olympic Quarters” New York Times (1923-Current file); Dec 7, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 4.

During the Winter Olympics of 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, six Hungarian athletes fled from the Olympic village and went to the homes of Hungarian expatriates in Melbourne in order to petition for refugee status in Australia. There were speculations that forty other Hungarian athletes at the Olympics would also attempt to seek refuge in Australia. The act was certain to draw international attention to the seriousness of the Hungarian Refugee Crisis since it happened at such a publicly followed event. It is clear that the Hungarian athletes’ actions were effective, based on the presence of the story on page four of the New York Times.


More Hungarians Get A Haven Here” By Max Frankel, New York Times (1923-Current file); Jan 9, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 1.

At this point, the U.S. had committed to taking 28,000 Hungarian refugees. The U.S. military was assigned to help conduct the transports of almost 7,000 new refugees. This decision was kept very quiet within the U.S. media until this point in time because the decision to provide military assistance to transporting refugees came from the Executive Administration before Congress approved the new numbers of admittance to the U.S. This shows the President’s urgency, most likely due to the Cold War implications of this conflict.


More Hungarians Get A Haven Here” By Max Frankel, New York Times (1923-Current file); Jan 15, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 3.

This article reports that the city of Vienna has asked the United States to accelerate the process of accepting refugees, which had slowed because of an economic recession in the U.S. The recession also caused the U.S. to cease funding the transportation of the refugees to the U.S. The lag reportedly created unrest within refugee camps, resulting in two “incidents” —likely riots— that had “anti-Semitic overtones.” The anti-Semitism stemmed from notions that the U.S. gave Jews priority for travel to the U.S.


Permanence of Law on Refugees Urged” New York Times (1923-Current file); Mar 16, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 22.

This article demonstrates the power that the presence of 30,000 Hungarian refugees had over U.S. refugee policy. At the time, laws pertaining to refugees were in constant flux, so the refugees had no promise of permanence. There was concern that a feeling of lack of security would prevent the refugees from fully contributing to American society, which was the ultimate concern of the American people.


U.S. Will Admit More Refugees” New York Times (1923-Current file); Apr 14, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 28.

Responding to reports that the U.S. would be closing its doors to Hungarian immigrants, this article convey’s a State Department announcement that they would continue to admit a limited number of refugees. At this point, the U.S. had already 31,000 refugees. The State Department says that they will be prioritizing “hardship cases such as those involving broken families” and “special interest cases such as scientists and engineers whose skills will enable them to be integrated readily into the American economy.” This prioritization is clearly in the U.S.’s best interest as it would help the U.S. to have skilled, employable refugees, as well as to have completed families which are the American ideal.


Recession Hurts Hungarian Refugees” By Harrison E. Salisbury, New York Times (1923-Current file); Jul 14, 1958; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 1.

This article focuses on the high rates of unemployment in the Hungarian refugee communities in various cities due to a recession, which they portray as the only major obstacle in an otherwise successful resettlement program. While there was minimal repatriation at this point, a pastor reports many unemployed refugees talking about wanting to go back to Hungary, where work was “compulsory.” The article boasts that “it is agreed by most social agencies that no other immigrant group has adapted so rapidly and so constructively to the American was of life.” This comment makes clear the expectations that Americans had of refugees, which was to assimilate into an “American” lifestyle. During an era when cultural homogeneity was valued within the US, the same was expected of refugees.

LA Times Coverage of The Hungarian Refugee Crisis

Hungarian Refugees Enter a New Life

Hungarian Refugees Enter a New Life Dec 26 1956

Holmes, Alexander

Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Dec 26, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. B4
This article focuses on the arrival of a group of Hungarian refugees to an air base in New Jersey. It comments on the individual Hungarians descending from the plane–people in rumpled suits; a giddy couple; a beautiful girl; and a “dangerous” looking man. The journalist makes a point to mention that, “no other passenger had the air of violence and rebellion” like this one man. The author goes on to note that refugees are simply ordinary people (they identify as “communist” but are really only “loosely…’Socialist’”). His final comment is that we should not judge them.

The article seems to simultaneously recognize the individuality of each refugee, but in it’s relation to how it makes them relatable to an American audience.


Hungarian Refugees Have Message for Us

Hungarian Refugees Have Message for Us Jan 20, 1957

Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Jan 20, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. B4
This journalist sees the Hungarian crisis as a possible opportunity for the, “free world to unmask Communism and permanently expose the wanton brutality for which it stands.” He then argues they should be encouraged to tell their stories of deprivation. The author mentions that communists preach the evils of capitalism–it would only be fair and just for us to do the same–we should convert refugees into, “first-class salesmen of democracy by being encouraged and financed on speaking missions in their new homelands.” This would correct American college students reading the wrong books; American laborers who don’t understand that enslavement/exploitation don’t come from Capitalism but Communism.

The author is interested in using refugees as tools for defeating Communism at home–seems to disregard whether or not refugees would be interested in this type of employment.


Refugees Guests of The Times

Refugees Guests of The Times Jan 24 1957

Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Jan 24, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. B4
“The refugees who faced death in Hungary a month ago are today facing life beyond their fondest dreams as they tour Los Angeles as guests of The Times–” the couple was selected by the newspaper to be guests at President Eisenhower’s inauguration, and get a tour of the country. “They have been given this opportunity not merely as individuals but more as symbols of the brave Hungarian peoples who chose to risk death in revolution rather than continue to submit meekly to Communist excesses.” One of their goals is to be good Americans.

There seems to be this reinforced idea of what a Hungarian refugee should be–a person just waiting to become all things ‘American.’ The Times seems to push the Cold War narrative of ‘good’ people being freedom loving Americans.


Hungarian Refugees Find Home in Solvang 

Hungarian Refugees Find Home in Solvang April 15, 1957

Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Apr 15, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. C10
this article documents the experience of a Hungarian family moving to Santa Barbara, and their cross country trip from New Jersey to California. The family experienced, “a panoramic view of America, the youngsters tasted their first ice cream, drank their first bottled soft drink, and saw for the first time real Indians and cowboys in the great Southwest.”

The journalist emphasizes the family’s first experiences of things assumed to be ‘American (unsure of what the author means by “real Indians” and the implications of this).’ The quick assimilation of refugees seems to be a common theme.


Hungarian Refugee Couple Too Busy for Inaugural This Year 

Hungarian Refugee Couple Too Busy for Inaugural This Year Jan 20 1961

Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Jan 20, 1961; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. 4
The Hungarian couple the Times brought to Eisenhower’s inauguration in 1957 are revisited during the next presidential ceremony in 1961. They are unable to go to the inauguration because they are both cramming for their, “examination to become United States citizens.” At this point, the husband prefers being called Frank instead of Ferenc. He owns a garage business and Eszter, his wife, works as a film laboratory technician. Eszter mentions how she hopefully will get the chance to see her mother in Switzerland, however, the Times reports her and her husband’s, “greatest dream will become a reality when they stand before a federal judge next January, raise their hands and become citizens of the country of their choice.”

The Los Angeles Times’ Editorial Board seems to endorse the idea that ideal refugees must quickly assimilate into American culture and become a preconceived notion of model citizens.


U.S. Aid to Refugees, Minorities Contrasted: Congressman Says Blacks, Latins Should Get Same Attention as Cubans, Hungarians 

US Aid to Refugees, Minorities Contrasted April 10 1970

Jones, Jack

Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Apr 10, 1970; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. B2
A Missouri congressman argued that services provided to Latinx and Black communities should equate to the aid given to Cuban and Hungarian refugees. Specifically, the perception that language differences impeded the employment of the Latinx community, however, Hungarian refugees were provided services to learn English. He also mentioned the $112 million spent that year to help Cuban refugees enter the US, but there being little political will to assist minorities in the country (like the lack of equal employment and the weak enforcement of the 1964 Civil Rights Act).


Hungary Refugees Adjust Well in U.S.

Hungary Refugees Adjust Well in US Dec 16 1976

Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Dec 16, 1976; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. C7
The article begins by focusing on a Hungarian-American refugee who became a doctor. It mentions he could, “easily pass for a native-born American..his speech bears no trace of an accent.” It then discusses how majority of Hungarian refugees did not settle into ethnic neighborhoods, but dispersed into American suburbs because they could, “blend comfortably with the American mainstream.” It also references the inability of Hungary related events to occur because the refugee diaspora was busy going to American events instead.  The doctor is quoted stating he is proud be Hungarian and takes any opportunity to tell his story.

The Times makes a distinct between immigrant groups from earlier periods that stayed close to their communities in urban centers, and the Hungarian refugees from the 1950s. It seems to create a hierarchy of immigrant groups based on how assimilated they have become.


Hungarian Refugee Going Home in Style

Hungarian Refugee Going Home In Style July 11 1989

Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Jul 11, 1989; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. 10
A Hungarian refugee flew back to his native country for the first time in 38 years. He went with the Bush Administration as the media representative for the Associated Press. It also mentions how he and his wife crawled their way to freedom, his eventual employment as a news photographer, and current mission in Budapest.

Vassar College Newspaper Response

Results of Rally Contributions Tabulated–Exceeds $2,156

Vassar Chronicle, Volume XIV, Number 10, 1 December 1956

This article, on the front page of the Vassar Chronicle, announces the amount of money raised to support Hungarian students who fled to Austria, administered through the World University Service. This collection took place soon after the revolution occurred, so it appears that on the Vassar Campus there was immediate interest and willingness to support the fleeing refugees. The article announces that the collection is still open, and that part of the proceeds are being used to create a scholarship for students to come to Vassar.

International Ball Sat. Benefits Hungarians

Vassar Miscellany News, Volume XXXXI, Number 11, 5 December 1956

This article is on the front page of the Miscellany News, and gives the event details for an International Ball which is a fundraiser for Hungarian student scholarships that are being created. Financial assistance is still the main focus for the Vassar community.

Hungarian Student Speaks Here Sat.

Vassar Miscellany News, Volume XXXXI, Number 12, 12 December 1956

This article, again with an important front-page location, informs the Vassar Community about a Hungarian Student Activist Leader who was instrumental in the Revolution. Istan Lazslo comes to speak out against the oppressions in his country, as part of a tour of colleges in the United States. The paper highly recommends students attend this lecture. The Hungarian Refugee cause is still important to Vassar students, and they are engaging in multiple ways with the issue.

Hungarian Receives Vassar Scholarship

Vassar Miscellany News, Volume XXXXI, Number 14, 16 January 1957

A somewhat misleading title, this second page article describes the existing scholarship that can support one refugee student from Hungary to attend Vassar. The article explains that the scholarship has not yet found a suitable applicant, since many of the refugee students are men who want to study engineering, and most of the women are above college age. The author still expresses hope that a woman with eagerness to learn and adequate English will be found in time for second semester. There is interest now in supporting Hungarian Refugees beyond financial assistance to Europe.

25 Hungarian Girls See Vassar Campus

Vassar Miscellany News, Volume XXXXI, Number 15, 13 February 1957

This article, continuing the front-page news trend, discusses a trip of 25 Hungarian students from Bard who have come to tour Vassar, to get an idea of different types of schools around the country. The author expresses interest in bringing Hungarian students to Vassar, in addition to those who already attend it, saying that Vassar will be a welcoming community. There is no explicit mention of the Revolution or Refugee status.

While Cause Remains Hope Dies, States “Hungary Aflame”; Hungary’s Last Voice For Freedom Being Snuffed Out

Vassar Chronicle, Volume XV, Number 6, 26 October 1957

This article gives a summary of a film screening about the past and continuing struggles in Hungary, and the strains for those involved. The article calls out the Vassar community for losing interest in the lives of Hungarian refugees, and urges Vassar to recommit to supporting the refugees. This is one year after the Revolution takes place, and the article is located on the 5th page of the paper, so despite its message it does not take a primary position, showing how much the cause has lost steam.

Hungarian Refugee Photography

REFUGEES’ SMILES SHOW JOY, RELIEF Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Feb 5, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. H2


This early photo of the refugees as assimilating to U.S. culture and the idea of the nuclear family. They look like any “typical” family depicted in mainstream 1950s culture. The media is trying to show that these refugees could be your neighbors.

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Hurley, Frank. 11/21/1956. New York Daily News.


This photo from the New York Daily News archives shows Hungarian refugees at Camp Kilmer, in New Jersey, where they were temporarily housed before being resettled throughout the U.S. The caption reads: “At Camp Kilmer, where Hungarian refugees were temporarily housed, Bill Vestesy asks a MP if he has seen his mother and brother among the refugees.” This photo shows the order that the U.S. government wanted to convey while bringing thousands of refugees to the states. 



Camp Kilmer Video


This video narrates the first refugees to arrive on U.S. soil. This video is especially interesting because of the narration and music. Peppy march music plays while the narrator discusses the “blood bath” of Russia and refers to the “Free World” opening its arms to the refugees. It also references that the refugees are arriving near Thanksgiving, making them “Modern Pilgrims.”


First of Refugee Arrivals Given Heroes’ Welcome: Refugees Set Foot on … Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Nov 22, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. 3


This photo is very faded, but it is interesting to show these crowds of people along with the caption that they are receiving a “Heroes’ Welcome.” This implies that the refugees are heroes for escaping the communist regime and making it to the United States.

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Out of Hungary– The Defiant Exiles: Young heroes of the ‘revolt of a … By ELIE ABEL New York Times (1923-Current file); Nov 25, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 245


This photo series is interesting because it depicts those leaving Hungary, and it is a less happy depiction compared to other photo spreads. Many of the photos are partly in the shadows, with discontent faces looking desperate to escape.

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Hungarian Refugees Cross Border Canal to Freedom. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Nov 28, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. 3


This is the first photo we found that showed refugees on the journey out of Hungary, and the possible dangers in escaping as they cross the canal.

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First Refugees of Hungarian Revolt Arrive: REVOLT REFUGEES Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Nov 30, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. 1


This photo continues to depict families assimilating to the U.S. ideal of a nuclear family, with one cousin learning English from an American cousin. It shows the refugees as willing to learn English, and already having familial ties to the states.Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.07.36 PM.png


Out of Hungary: Into American Homes Refugees from oppression begin a … By GERTRUDE SAMUELS New York Times (1923-Current file); Dec 9, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 257


This photo, only a month or so after refugees began arriving in the U.S., shows Hungarian families already engaging in their communities through work and family meals.

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HUNGARIAN FAMILY WELCOMED HERE: Manufacturer Guarantees Job and 500 Workers Aid With Money and Fu… Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Dec 17, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. B6


This photo shows a hungarian family in Los Angeles both working and assimilating into the U.S., and also works as advertising for an East Los Angeles Manufacturing Firm who would be sponsoring them.

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Hungarian Pair Tell of Russ Deportations: Senate Committee Hears New … Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Dec 19, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. 13


It is interesting that this photos is way back on page 13 of the Los Angeles times. Showing the masked refugee along with the caption shows readers that these refugees were not safe in their homes, that they needed to come to the United States to escape.

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Hungarian Says 30,000 Were Deported by Reds: Refugee Gives Figure to … Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Dec 20, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. 1


This photo from the front page of the Los Angeles times depicts a senator examining a young refugee who had teeth knocked and then was deported by the Russian “Reds.” According to the caption, this was a hearing about the mass deportation of Hungarians. It also promotes a grizzly, beaten look at the Hungarians, creating sympathy for the refugees from U.S. readers.

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Grim Memories of the Past Fade as Refugee Boy Nears New Home. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Dec 23, 1956; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg.B


This set of images is striking because it conveys both sympathy-inducing and political messages. The little boy is eating and clearly looks happy, while Nixon helps a refugee with a meat grinder in Vienna. The newspaper chose to say that the boy was adjusting well to being out of the states. Nixon is depicted to show that the government is invested in the refugees and will work with them to make a better life.

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 Times Refugee Pair Adjusting to Life in U.S. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Feb 3, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. B1


This shows a happy couple, sponsored by the Times, “adjusting” to life in the U.S. and acting like any other couple.

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Hungarian Refugee Hopes to Sing Here. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File); Mar 10, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times pg. SF4


This photo shows what the refugees will bring to the United States: determination and artistic talent.

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Vienna Shelters Hungarian Refugee Children: Austrian School Unit … By JOHN MacCORMAC Special to The New York Times.The New York Times New York Times (1923-Current file); Nov 30, 1957; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 3


This shows a school in Austria educating Hungarian refugees. It is on Page 3, which seems to be the norm later in 1957 when the hype of the revolution died down a bit. It shows the refugees wanting an education and listening to their teacher.

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What was interesting about the photos depicting refugees was that there were almost none before November 1957 when the U.S. got involved and thousands of refugees began moving to the United States. Most of the pictures show calm, ordered movement from Hungary to the United States, where the refugees were often depicted as couples and families who happily assimilated. When they were depicted in distress it was either because they were not yet in the U.S. or because they were being questioned by the senate about Russia. Without the captions these photos rarely indicate that there is a refugee in the photo, the refugees are depicted as respectable new Americans and even “Pilgrims” who deserve to live and prosper in the states after what they have been through. This was a response to the Cold War. The U.S. seemed to see the Hungarian refugees as aligning with U.S. nationalism, and as an anti-communist group. Bringing refugees to the U.S. was a way to promote the anti-communist Cold War agenda.